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The masculine (male) and #feminine (female) of nouns are called gender of nouns.
There are three ways of forming the Feminine of Nouns:

1. By using an entirely different word:
Masculine -- Feminine
Bachelor -- maid, spinster
Boy -- girl
Brother -- sister
Buck -- doe
Bull (or ox) -- cow
Bullock -- heifer
Cock -- hen
Colt -- filly
Dog -- bitch
Drake -- duck
Drone -- bee
Earl -- countess
Father -- mother
Gander -- goose
Gentleman -- lady
Hart -- roe
Horse -- mare
Husband -- wife
King -- queen
Lord -- lady
Man -- woman
Monk (or friar) -- nun
Nephew -- niece
Papa -- mama (or momma)
Ram -- ewe
Sir -- madam
Son -- daughter
Stag -- hind
Uncle -- aunt
Wizard -- witch

2. By adding a suffix -ess, -ine, -trix, -a, etc.:
Masculine -- Feminine
Author -- authoress
Baron -- baroness
Count -- countess
Giant -- giantess
Heir -- heiress
Host -- hostess
Jew -- Jewess
Lion -- lioness
Manager -- manageress
Mayor -- mayoress
Patron -- patroness
Peer -- peeress
Poet -- poetess
Priest -- priestess
Prophet -- prophetess
Shepherd -- shepherdess
Steward -- stewardess
Viscount -- viscountess
Suffix -ess is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending:
Masculine -- Feminine
Actor -- actress
Benefactor -- benefactress
Conductor -- conductress
Enchanter -- enchantress
Founder -- foundress
Hunter -- huntress
Instructor -- instructress
Negro -- negress
Abbot -- abbess
Duke -- duchess
Emperor -- empress
Preceptor -- preceptress
Prince -- princess
Songster -- songstress
Tempter -- temptress
Seamster -- seamstress
Tiger -- tigress
Traitor -- traitress
Waiter -- waitress
Master -- mistress
Murderer -- murderess
Sorcerer -- sorceress
Note: The suffix -ess is the commonest suffix used to form feminine nouns, from the masculine, and is the only one which we now use in forming a new feminine noun.
Masculine -- Feminine
Hero -- heroine
Testator -- testatrix
Czar -- czarina
Sultan -- sultana
Signor -- signora
Fox -- vixen

3. By placing a word before or after, it can be written as a compound word(s):
Masculine -- Feminine
Grand-father -- Grand-mother
Greatuncle -- greataunt
Manservant -- maidservant
Landlord -- landlady
Milkman -- milkwoman
Peacock -- peahen
Salesman -- saleswoman
Godfather -- Godmother

ettefreeguy
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